Non-renewable energy sources

Coal, natural gas, nuclear power and oil are all non-renewable energy sources.

Each of these energy sources has a number of advantages and disadvantages with regards to competitiveness, security of supply and impact on climate and environment.

Natural gas

Combustion of natural gas emits less CO2 than other fossil fuels. It is a more expensive energy source than other fossil fuels and the price varies significantly. Supplies can be somewhat uncertain, and some regions that export natural gas face political instability.
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Natural gas at Vattenfall

Nuclear power

Nuclear power emits low levels of CO2, but the spent, highly radioactive nuclear fuel requires storage in secure facilities for a very long time. Nuclear power provides stable and large-scale electricity generation. The construction of a new nuclear power plant requires major investments.
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Nuclear power at Vattenfall


Coal power provides stable and large-scale electricity generation at a competitive cost, and coal is available in abundant supply. Coal power plants do, however, emit high levels of CO2.
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Coal at Vattenfall


Oil can be used to produce electricity and/or heat in different kinds of power plants. Oil is often used only as a peak-load fuel when other plants have problems or cannot deliver enough energy, for instance during cold winter days.
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Last updated: 2016-10-03 08:06