Chlorout - Performance enhancement and cost reduction

ChlorOut® is a technical concept that improves power plant performance by reducing corrosion, fouling and emissions.              

ChlorOut AB was founded in 2011 to market the ChlorOut concept and associated services outside the Vattenfall Group. Our clients include boiler manufacturers, power plant technology suppliers and utility companies.

About the company ChlorOut

The Vattenfall group

Our concept

The ChlorOut® additive

- IACM®

References

How to contact us

About the company ChlorOut

ChlorOut AB is an independent subsidiary company to Vattenfall AB, established in February 2011 to market the ChlorOut concept and associated services outside the Vattenfall Group.

The company's main business is to provide technology licences to clients in the global power industry, primarily boiler manufacturers, technology suppliers and engineering companies looking to boost their offering with an innovative and cost effective way to reduce material and maintenance costs for biomass and waste fired boilers.

The Vattenfall Group

We are one of Europe's major retailers of electricity and heat and one of the largest producers of electricity and heat.

More about the Vattenfall Group

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Our concept

Established and validated since more than 10 years, the ChlorOut concept is a technical solution that reduces corrosion and deposit problems in biomass and waste fired boilers.

It also offers the possibility for simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides in the flue gas, thus eliminating the need for traditional deNOx chemicals, which can be problematic from an occupational health and safety perspective. The concept has furthermore been proven effective in reducing dioxin emissions.

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Schematic of CFB boiler with the ChlorOut concept installed

 

The illustration shows scematics of ChlorOut injection after final combustion and how the IACM instrument is installed before superheaters so that the ChlorOut effect on decreasing KCl can be measured.

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The ChlorOut® additive

The additive is injected into the flue gas upstream of the superheaters. This causes a rapid and effective conversion of the alkali chlorides in the flue gas to sulphates, which are less harmful from a corrosion and deposit point of view.

If ammonium sulphate is used as additive, a simultaneous reduction of the NOx content in the flue gases is also provided (SNCR reaction).

Test campaign in 100 MWth CHP plant:
(Left) Deposits and corrosion products formed on test rings after four weeks exposure during combustion of a mixture of biomass and plastic waste.
(Right) The appearance after ChlorOut injection with the same fuel mix during the same time period.
From the two images it is clearly visible that adding the ChlorOut additive prevent the deposits and corrosion product that othervise appears

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Main reactions

1. (NH4)2SO4→ 2NH3(g) + SO3(g) + H2O
The injected ammonium sulphate is dissociated into NH3 and SO3.

2. SO3 + H2O + 2KCl(g) → 2HCl(g) + K2SO4(s)
SO3 reacts with alkali chlorides and converts them into alkali sulphates and HCl.

SNCR reaction

3. 4NH3(g) + 4NO (g) + O2(g) →4N2(g) + 6H2O
The ammonia produced by reaction 1 reacts with the flue gas NO.

When NOx reduction is the primary driver for installation of ChlorOut, the technology is referred to as CleaNOx®.

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ChlorOut test using ammonium sulphate (AS): KCl and NO in the flue gas during combustion with wood and straw pellets. I. No injection, II. Injection of AS, III. Injection of increased amount of AS.
The diagram shows significantly decreased levels of both NO and KCl with increased addition of the ChlorOut additive.

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Test campaign in 100 MWth CHP plant: KCl in flue gas and S, Cl in deposits collected on test rings. Reference case (Ref) and case with ammonium sulphate (AS).

The diagram shows effects from the ChlorOut concept on important components in deposits sampled in a 100 MWth boiler, super heater region. KCl decreases from 10 to 2 ppm (appr) and Cl is not detectable with ChlorOut applied. Instead the amount of S increases from 5 to 60 ppm (appr).

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IACM®

The IACM instrument (In-situ Alkali Chloride Monitor) measures the concentration of gaseous alkali chlorides (KCl and NaCl) on-line. The measurement principle is based on molecular absorption over a certain wavelength interval. IACM enables quality control of the incoming fuel mix as well as control of the required amount of the ChlorOut additive.

The illustration shows schematically how the UV-transmitting unit on one side of the flue gas channel sends light to a receiving unit on the other side. It also shows the computerized signal evaluation leading to visualization of the results as KCl levels.

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References

Examples of plant experiences of the ChlorOut concept can be found below. A full reference list is available below.

Ingelheim

Implementation of ChlorOut has greatly reduced superheater fouling and enabled an extension of the operation period between planned outages from 4 to 12 weeks. Furthermore, measurements of wall thickness and detailed examination of tubes and deposits have confirmed that superheater corrosion has been minimised.

Brista

The supplier of the original boiler package for the Brista CHP plant stated: "Given the current fuel mix, without the ChlorOut concept, the carbon steel in superheater 4 would probably only have lasted 3-4 years, compared with the 7-8 years that it actually lasted with the ChlorOut system installed."

Sala

Sala-Heby Energi: "The CleaNOx system has helped us improve our environmental performance and also been economically profitable. Maintenance and development of the installation has been undertaken in close cooperation with ChlorOut AB to ascertain and increase efficiency of the equipment."

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Reference list

Plant Plant owner Type Fuel Size,
MWth
fuel
Helsingborg Öresunds-kraft Kraft & Värme AB PF Virgin wood 185
Workington Iggesund Paperboard Ltd. BFB Virgin wood 148
Brista AB Fortum Värme CFB Virgin wood 122
Växjö (under construc-tion) Växjö Energi AB BFB Virgin wood, peat 105
Navia Ence Energia y Celulosa SA.  BFB Virgin wood 100
Munksund Vattenfall AB  CFB Waste wood, plastic reject 100
Idbäcken Vattenfall AB  BFB Waste wood 100
Poznan Dalkia Poznan S.A. BFB Virgin wood 90
Karlstad (under construc-tion) Karlstad Energi AB BFB Virgin wood 88
Jordbro P34 Vattenfall AB PF Virgin wood 80
Strongoli Biomasse Italia SpA CFB Virgin wood, agri-cultural reject 2x75
Jordbro CHP Vattenfall AB BFB Waste wood 70
Ingelheim Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & CO. KG Grate Waste wood 65
Kassel Städtische Werke Energie + Wärme GmbH CFB Waste wood 38
Sala Sala-Heby Energi AB  BFB Virgin wood 32
Ludvika  Väster-bergs-lagens Energi AB  Grate  Virgin wood 2x10
Kalix Vattenfall AB  Grate Peat, bark 10
Vetlanda Vetlanda Energi & Teknik AB 2 x Grate Virgin wood 6&9

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Last updated: 2017-07-21 14:57