Glossary

This glossary has also been published in Vattenfall's Annual and sustainability report 2014.

APX

Biomass

BSCI (Business Social Compliance Initiative)

CCS

CHP (Combined Heat and Power)

CO2

Derivative instrument

Ecological compensation

EEX

Efficiency

EPD

EPEX

EU 27

EU ETS

Forward market

Fossil fuels

Global Compact

Green certificates

GRI

Gross capacity

IED (Industrial Emissions Directive)

IFRS

Indicator

Installed capacity

ISO 14001

ISO 9001

Life cycle analysis (LCA)

LTIF (Lost Time Injury Frequency)

Margin call

Merit order

Net capacity

Nominal capacity

Nord Pool

NOX

OHSAS 18000

OTC

Oxy-fuel technology

Primary energy

Renewable energy sources

Reservoir levels

SAIDI (System Average Interruption Duration Index)

SAIFI (System Average Interruption Frequency Index)

SKB

SO2

Spot market

Swap

Swedish GAAP

Thermal power

Volatility

Voluntary nature protection

Waste hierarchy

Power units

Energy units

Weight units

Voltage

 

APX

Amsterdam Power Exchange. An energy exchange for the Netherlands, the UK and Belgium.

Biomass

Renewable fuel, such as wood, bark and pine oil.

BSCI (Business Social Compliance Initiative)

An initiative launched by the Foreign Trade Association to improve working conditions at factories and farms around the world.

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CCS

Carbon Capture and Storage. The capture and underground storage of the carbon dioxide that is produced from combustion of fossil fuels.

CHP (Combined Heat and Power)

A plant that produces both heat and electricity. In such a plant a large share of the primary energy is used for electricity and heat production, with little wasted heat.

CO2

Carbon dioxide.

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Derivative instrument

A financial instrument that is commonly used to manage risk. Its value and change in value is related to the underlying (derived) instrument. Examples of derivative instruments are options, forward contracts and swaps.

Ecological compensation

Measures taken to create new environmental values to compensate for environmental values that have been lost through exploitation.

EEX

The European Energy Exchange. The Germany electricity exchange.

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Efficiency

An efficiency rating indicates the relationship between energy output and the energy input in a system.

EPD

Environmental Product Declaration – a third-party environmental declaration in accordance with ISO 14025 (www.environdec.com).

EPEX

The spot market of EEX. Since 2009 part of EPEX Spot SE, Paris.

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EU 27

The 27 member-states of the EU after its widening on 1 January 2007.

EU ETS

The EU Emissions Trading System. The EU's trading system for CO2 emission allowances. The system sets a cap for emissions from businesses within the system and facilitates optimisation through trading in emission allowances.

Forward market

A market in which buyers and sellers agree on a set price for a future delivery of the underlying instrument, such as an electricity contract. (See also Derivative instrument).

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Fossil fuels

Fuels based on hydrocarbons from ancient sedimentary layers – mainly coal, oil and natural gas.

Global Compact

The United Nations' (UN's) ten principles for companies surrounding human rights, labour issues, the environment and anti-corruption.

Green certificates

Certificates for renewable energy that may be bought and sold. Called electricity certificates in Sweden.

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GRI

Global Reporting Initiative – a global standard for sustainability reporting.

Gross capacity

The electric output delivered directly from a plant's generator. Measured in MW (Megawatt).

IED (Industrial Emissions Directive)

An EU directive that sets higher demands on lowering emission levels and spills to soil and water.

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IFRS

International Financial Reporting Standards – Vattenfall has been reporting in accordance with IFRS since 2005.

Indicator

GRI term that provides qualitative or quantitative information about the performance and development of the aspects that are identified as material for the company.

Installed capacity

The performance according to design data for power plants. Commonly measured in MW (Megawatt).

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ISO 14001

An international standard in the ISO 14000 series for establishing environmental management systems.

ISO 9001

An international standard in the ISO 9000 series for establishing quality management systems.

Life cycle analysis (LCA)

Analysis of a power plant's environmental emissions in the entire chain from construction and fuel extraction via energy production to waste management and demolition.

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LTIF (Lost Time Injury Frequency)

Methodology to establish a products' total environmental impact during its life cycle, from raw material extraction, through manufacturing processes and usage, to waste management, including all transportation and energy consumption.

Margin call

Marginal security that the holding of a derivative position must pledge to cover the credit risk of its counterparty (OTC or exchange).

Merit order

The order in which production capacity at plants is used.

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Net capacity

The electric output that a plant delivers to distribution networks, i.e., gross capacity less the energy used by the plant itself.
Measured in MW (Megawatt)

Nominal capacity

The capacity that a generator is designed for. This concept is used mainly for electricity generation power plants, e.g., hydro power plants and wind turbines. Measured in MW (Megawatt).

Nord Pool

The Nordic electricity exchange. Started in Sweden and Norway in 1996.

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NOx

Collective term for nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide and similar nitrogen compounds.

OHSAS 18000

A series of standards that can be used as a basis for an occupational health and safety management system.

OTC

Over the Counter. Trading outside of exchanges (directly or via brokers) in physical and financial contracts.

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Oxy-fuel technology

A technology used to separate carbon dioxide in a CCS plant.

Primary energy

Primary energy is the form of energy that is accessible directly from the original sources. Vattenfall uses the interpretation applied by Eurostat and IEA. This means that all fuels are assigned a primary energy content corresponding to its heating value. Uranium is assigned a primary energy content corresponding to the heat released in the power plant. Solar, wind and hydro power are assigned a primary energy content corresponding to the extracted electricity (or heat).

Renewable energy sources

Non-finite energy sources such as hydro power, biomass, wind, the sun, ocean waves and geothermal energy.

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Reservoir levels

Refers to the volume of water stored in a reservoir which on a specific occasion can be used for hydro power generation. Reservoir levels vary during the year depending on precipitation and production.

SAIDI (System Average Interruption Duration Index)

An index of average power interruption times within electricity distribution. Measured in terms of interruption duration per customer and year.

SAIFI (System Average Interruption Frequency Index)

An index of average power interruption frequency within electricity distribution. Measured in terms of the number of power interruptions per customer and year.

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SKB

Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB (The Swedish Nuclear Fuel Management Company) – responsible for handling radioactive waste in Sweden.

SO2

Sulphur dioxide.

Spot market

A market in which trading is conducted for immediate delivery.

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Swap

A financial instrument that is a combination of a spot and forward transaction – a type of financial swap agreement.

Swedish GAAP

Swedish Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. Applied by Vattenfall through 2004.

Thermal power

Electricity generated via a heating process, such as a gas turbine or a steam process in a coal or nuclear power plant (compare combined heat and power).

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Volatility

A measure of how the price of a product varies during a given period of time.

Voluntary nature protection

Measures taken on a voluntary basis aimed at protecting species and natural environments.

Waste hierarchy

The EU's prioritisation framework for how waste is to be avoided and managed.

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Power units

  • Power is energy per unit of time
  • Power output is measured in watts (W)
  • 1 kW (kilowatt) = 1,000 W
  • 1 MW (megawatt) = 1,000 kW
  • 1 GW (gigawatt) = 1,000,000 kW

Energy units

  • Energy is power multiplied by time
  • 1 kWh (kilowatt hour) = 1 kW in one hour
  • 1 MWh (megawatt hour) = 1,000 kWh
  • 1 GWh (gigawat hour) = 1,000,000 kWh
  • 1 TWh (terawatt hour) = 1,000,000,000 kWh

Weight units

  • ktonnes (kilotonnes) = 1,000 tonnes
  • Mton (megatonnes) = 1,000,000 tonnes

Voltage

1 kV (kilovolt) = 1,000 volts (V)

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Last updated: 2015-05-08 16:29